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Ultimate List of Chemical Compounds and Their Common Names And Formulas

We often refer to many household chemicals by their common names. For instance, you will rarely find a person asking you to give him dihydrogen oxide (water) when he is thirsty or to pass him sodium chloride (salt) at the dinner table!

However, it is important to recognize that common names are not only inaccurate but also tend to vary from one place to another.

This means that the only reliable way to name chemicals is using a standardized chemical nomenclature.

A standardized nomenclature ensures that a chemical name leaves no ambiguity as far as the chemical nature of a compound is concerned. In other words, it gives an accurate description of a chemical compound or substance’s composition. 

Besides, using scientific names ensure that each substance has a single name (though there are cases where alternative names may be acceptable).

The world-accepted format for chemical nomenclature has been established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (or IUPAC).

The long and the short of it is that don’t assume that you know the chemical composition of a substance on your kitchen cabinet based on its common name.

To keep you up to date, here is a comprehensive list of chemical compounds and their common names and formulas:

Common NameChemical CompoundFormula
Baking PowderSodium BicarbonateNaHCO3
Potash AlumPotassium Aluminium SulphateKAlSO4
 Chloroform Trichloro Methane CHCl3
 Gypsum Calcium Sulphate CaSo4
Blue VitriolCopper Sulphate CuSO4.5H2O

 Mohr’s Salt
  Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate
FeSO4(NH4)2SO4.6H2
Laughing Gas  Nitrous Oxide N2O
Dry Ice
Solid Carbon dioxide  
CO2
Heavy WaterDeuterium Oxide  D2O
MouthwashHydrogen PeroxideH2O2  
Washing SodaSodium Carbonate
Na2CO3  
Caustic PotashPotassium Hydroxide  KOH
Green VitriolFerrous SulphateFeSo4  
Magnesia
Magnesium Oxide  

MgO  
Quick Lime
Calcium Oxide  

CaO  
Chalk (Marble)Calcium CarbonateCaCo3
SugarSucrose
C12H22O11  
White VitriolZinc Sulphate
ZnSo4.7H2O  
Slaked Lime
Calcium Hydroxide  
Ca(OH)2
T.N.T.
Trinitrotoluene  
C7H5N3O6
VinegarAcetic Acid  CH3COO
Washing SodaSodium CarbonateNa2CO3
Caustic SodaSodium Hydroxide
NaOH  
Moth Balls1,4-DichlorobenzeneC6H4Cl2
SandSilicon Oxide  SiO2  
VermeliumMercuric Sulphide
HgS  
Marsh Gas  Methane  
CH4  
Bleaching PowderCalcium OxychlorideCaOCL2
Plaster of ParisCalcium SulphateCaSO4∙2H2O
Chalk  Calcium CarbonateCaCO3
Aspirin   Acetyl Salicylic AcidC9H8O4

Alcohol  
EthanolC2H5OH
MSGMonosodium glutamateC₅H₈NO₄Na
Carbolic AcidPhenolC6H5OH
CalomelMercurous ChlorideHgCl
Cream of TarterPotassium Hydrogen Tartrate/Hydrogen BitartrateKC4H5O6
DolomiteCalcium Magnesium CarbonateCaMg[CO3]2
BoraxSodium Tetraborate DecahydrateNa2B4O7.10H2O
GalenaLead [ll] SulphadePbS
GlycerolPropane-1,2,3-triolC3H8O3
Antiperspirant & Deodorants Aluminum ChlorohydrateAl2ClH7O6  
SaltSodium ChlorideNaCl
Toothpaste Sodium FluorideNaF
Hand Sanitizer Isopropyl AlcoholC3H8O
Hypo SolutionSodium Thiosulphate PentahydrateNa2S2O3.5H20
HematiteIron [lll] Oxide/Ferric OxideF2O3
LimestoneCalcium CarbonateCaCo3
Methyl ethyl/ ketone ButanoneButan-2-oneC4H8O
Muriatic AcidHydrochloric AcidHCL
Aqua Fortis/Spirit of NiterNitric AcidHNO3
Wintergreen OilMethyl SalicylateC8H8O3
QuartzSilicon Dioxide [Silica]SiO2
QuickSilverMercuryHg
SaltpetrePotassium NitrateKNO3

Hopefully, our list of chemical compounds and their common names and formulas has shed some light on the chemical composition of certain substances that you only knew by their archaic or common names.

If you’re up for a little light chemical discovery, we have a cool compilation of chemistry-related quizzes that can help you work out your brain all while enjoying yourself. 

Interested? Check this one out: Tricky Chemistry Questions with Answers for Chemistry Die-Hards

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The Boffins Portal Team
Boffins' Portal is your free expert-created education content website. We provide engaging content using simple terms, plenty of real-world examples, and helpful illustrations so that our readers can easily understand and get informed in less time.
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